Sectional Conflict: Regional Differences
THEMATIC FOCUS American and Regional Culture (ARC)
Creative expression, demographic change, philosophy, religious beliefs, scientific ideas, social mores, and technology shape national, regional, and group cultures in America, and these varying cultures often play a role in shaping government policy
and developing economic systems.
Unit 5: Learning Objective E
Explain the effects of immigration from various parts of the world on American culture from 1844 to 1877.
Substantial numbers of international migrants continued to arrive in the United States from Europe and Asia, mainly from Ireland and Germany, often settling in ethnic communities where they could preserve elements of their languages and customs.
A strongly anti-Catholic nativist movement arose that was aimed at limiting new immigrants’ political power and cultural influence.
THEMATIC FOCUS Social Structures (SOC)
Social categories, roles, and practices are created, maintained, challenged, and transformed throughout American history, shaping government policy, economic systems, culture, and the lives of citizens.
Unit 5: Learning Objective F
Explain how regional differences related to slavery caused tension in the years leading up to the Civil War.
The North’s expanding manufacturing economy relied on free labor in contrast to the Southern economy’s dependence on slave labor. Some Northerners did not object to slavery on principle but claimed that slavery would undermine the free labor market. As a result, a free-soil movement arose that portrayed the expansion of slavery as incompatible with free labor.
African American and white abolitionists, although a minority in the North, mounted a highly visible campaign against slavery, presenting moral arguments against the institution, assisting slaves’ escapes, and sometimes expressing a willingness to use violence to achieve their goals.
Defenders of slavery based their arguments on racial doctrines, the view that slavery was a positive social good, and the belief that slavery and states’ rights were protected by the Constitution.